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Epinephelus itajara

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Life History Parameters Value
Maximum weight (kg) 363
Maximum age (year) 37
Age at length 0 (year) -0.684
Age at Maturity (months) 72
Maximum Length (cm) 250
Length at Maturity (cm) 120
Linf. Asymptotic Length (cm) 222.1
K - von Bertalanffy growth coefficient 0.09
Natural Mortality 0.12

Spawning Season (Peak month in bold):
- - - - - Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct - -

Habitat and Distribution

This species occurs in the western and eastern Atlantic. In the western Atlantic, it occurs from Georgia to Brazil, including the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. Adults are found on reefs and in bays, whereas juveniles are found in mangroves and estuaries.

Spawning season in the Gulf of Mexico

The spawning season for this species varies among regions. In the eastern GOM, it spawns from June through October with a peak in July to September. In south Florida, the species spawns from August through October. In the Caribbean, spawning occurs from June through December with a peak from June through September.

Spawning Patterns

Goliath Grouper form many, small transient spawning aggregations of ten to less than 100 fish that are highly predictable in time and space and are comprised of individuals that migrate hundreds of kilometers away. Spawning occurs at night during the new moon at high-relief rocky reefs and artificial reefs (including shipwrecks and towers) in water depths of 15-50 m. Goliath Grouper are broadcast spawners with external fertilization.

Fishing Patterns in Relation to Spawning

Fishery is closed and the species is protected.

Management of Spawning Aggregations

The commercial and recreational fisheries are completely closed.

Research and Management Priorities